PDAPP transgenic mice overexpress a mutant form of human amyloid precursor protein under control of the platelet-derived growth factor promoter in CNS neurons that causes early onset, familial Alzheimer’s disease in humans. These mice, on a mixed genetic background, have been shown to have substantial learning impairments from early ages, as well as an age-dependent decline in learning ability that has been hypothesized to be caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether PDAPP mice on a pure C57BL/6 background develop more severe age-dependent learning deficits than wild-type mice; (2) if so, whether Aβ accumulation accounts for the excessive decline in learning ability; and (3) whether the learning deficits are reversible, even after significant Aβ deposition. At 4 – 6, 10 –12, or 17–19 months of age, PDAPP and littermate wild-type mice on a C57BL/6 background were tested on a 5 week water maze protocol in whichthe location of the escape platform changed weekly, requiringthe mice to repeatedly learn new information. PDAPP mice exhibited impaired spatial learning as early as 4 months (pre-Aβ deposition), and the performance of both wild-type and PDAPP mice declined with age. However, PDAPP mice exhibited significantly greater deterioration with age. Direct evidence for the role of Aβ accumulation in the age-related worsening in PDAPP mice was provided by the observation that systemic treatment over several weeks with the anti-Aβ antibody 10D5 reduced plaque deposition, increased plasma Aβ, improved hippocampal long-term potentiation, and improved behavioral performance in aged PDAPP mice with substantial Aβ burden.