Epidemiological studies show that some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, nonspecific inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, reduce the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). They determined the impact of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on Aβ levels, deposition, and metabolism in a mouse model (the Tg2576) of AD-like amyloidosis. To this end, mice were treated with indomethacin and nimesulide continuously from 8 months of age until they were 15 months old. At the end of the study, indomethacin significantly reduced Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels in both cortex and hippocampus. This decrease was coincidental with a significant reduction of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity. By contrast, nimesulide had no effect on both Aβ peptides and NF-κB. Consistently, mice receiving indomethacin, but no nimesulide, showed a significant reduction in the amyloid burden compared with placebo. Neither drug had an effect on plasma levels of Aβ peptides or the Aβ precursor protein metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that genetic absence of this factor reduces the anti amyloidogenic effect of indomethacin. These findings indicate that chronic administration of indomethacin by blocking the activation of the NF-κB significantly reduces the amyloid pathology in Tg2576 mice, and provide insights into the mechanisms by which this drug could slow progression of AD.