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Apomorphine treatment in Alzheimer mice promoting amyloid-β degradation


Year of Publication:
Contact PI Name:
Yasumasa Ohyagi
Contact PI Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
E. Himeno, L. Ma, N. Nakamura, K. Miyoshi, N. Sakae, K. Motomura, N. Soejima, R. Yamasaki, T. Hashimoto, T. Tabira, F.M. LaFerla, J. Kira
Primary Reference (PubMED ID):
Funding Source:
Japan Ministry of Education
Japan Brain Foundation
Study Goal and Principal Findings:

In this study the authors tested the efficacy of apomorphine (APO), a non-specific dopamine agonist, in the 3xTg mouse model. Six-month-old 3xTg mice were treated with subcutaneous injections of APO once a week for 1 month. Memory function was evaluated by Morris water maze before and after the treatment. Brain tissues were examined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. After APO treatment, dramatic improvement in memory function and decreases in Abeta and p-tau pathology were observed.The authors did not find positive immunoreactivity of the dopamine D1–D4 receptors on neurons in the cortices and hippocampi of 3xTg-AD mice and found no improvement of memory function after the injection of pramipexole, another dopamine agonist. Thus, the effects of APO may be mediated, at least in part, by some dopamine-independent pathways. Identification of novel pathways or receptors that mediate the therapeutic effects of APO may contribute to the development of a novel drug for AD.

Therapeutic Agent

Therapeutic Information:
Therapy Type:
Small Molecule
Therapeutic Agent:
Therapeutic Target:
D2 Dopamine Receptor

Animal Model

Model Information:
Model Type:
Strain/Genetic Background:
Not Reported

Experimental Design

Is the following information reported in the study?:
Power/Sample Size Calculation
Randomized into Groups
Blinded for Treatment
Blinded for Outcome Measures
Pharmacokinetic Measures
Pharmacodynamic Measures
Toxicology Measures
ADME Measures
Route of Delivery
Duration of Treatment
Frequency of Administration
Age of Animal at the Beginning of Treatment
Age of Animal at the End of Treatment
Sex as a Biological Variable
Study Balanced for Sex as a Biological Variable
Number of Premature Deaths
Number of Excluded Animals
Statistical Plan
Genetic Background
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria Included
Conflict of Interest


Outcome Measured
Outcome Parameters
Morris Water Maze
beta Amyloid Load
Brain-beta Amyloid Peptide 40
Brain-beta Amyloid Peptide 42
Notch Cleavage
Insulin Degrading Enzyme (IDE)
Oxidative Stress Markers
Cell Biology
beta Amyloid Peptide Clearance
Neuroprotection-Oxidative Stress